Though horses are still frequently euthanized after breaking a leg, today’s procedure is usually accomplished in a more humane manner, like with an intravenous injection of barbiturates, performed by a veterinarian [source: Equine Protection Network]. And it’s not just racehorses that sustain leg injuries — tiny ponies can, too. In addition to kicks and crashes, simple accidents like missteps can cause serious breaks and injuries. Fatigue and the musculoskeletal structure of the horse itself can also be factors. Hard-to-diagnose pre-existing issues such as strained tendons, hairline fractures and microfractures can also contribute to broken bones.
If the worst should happen and a horse breaks its leg, there are a number of factors that help determine if a vet can fix a horse’s broken leg and bring the animal back to good health. Some questions an owner with an injured animal needs to ask include:
- How bad is the break? The type of break makes a big difference in determining whether a horse will be able to recover successfully. Horses suffer fractures along a wide spectrum of severity. For instance, having an incomplete fracture involves the bone cracking, but not entirely breaking. This is easier to deal with than a complete fracture, which can result in the bone shattering. Many horses with incomplete fractures can recover. Extensive damage and multiple breaks are closely linked with the possible need for euthanasia. Whether or not the bone fragments protrude through the skin is also a consideration because exposed bone can increase the chance of complications, as we’ll discuss below.
- How old is the horse? Younger horses generally stand a better chance at recovering from a broken leg because their bones are still growing. These horses are usually lighter and put less weight on the injury.
- Where is the break? Bones in different areas of the leg have different degrees of success when it comes to healing. As an example, a break in the lower leg can be difficult to mend because horses have fewer blood vessels there. The recovery process can take even longer if one of the horse’s larger bones break.
Even if a horse owner decides to give the broken leg a chance to heal, there are a number of things that can go wrong during the recovery process.
Complications of Treating a Broken Leg
You might be asking, “Even though it’s difficult for a horse’s broken leg to heal, why not let nature run its course and decide whether the horse will live or die?” Part of the answer is that several painful conditions can develop during the rehabilitation process. Some people consider euthanizing the animal more humane than letting it live and suffer.
You usually can’t save the horse’s life just by amputating the broken leg. Horses aren’t like dogs, which can usually live a fairly active lifestyle on three legs. Horses are heavier and this weight can cause problems for the other hooves. Unfortunately, few horses can adjust to prostheses. Horses must be in good overall health, be able to adapt to new situations and have an owner that’s willing to spend his or her time and money on follow-up prosthesis treatments [source: Willamette Valley Equine].
There are many complications of treating a broken leg. Here are a few examples of some of the issues that can affect recovery:
- Weight: Most horses are heavy animals and their legs and hooves are small in comparison. Favoring a broken leg often forces the healthy legs to bear more than their share of the weight, and this — along with other factors — can increase the chances of developing crippling conditions like laminitis and abscesses [source: Moore]. The exact cause of laminitis (an inflammatory disease of the material connecting the hoof to the leg bone, which can lead to their separation) is unknown, but painful laminitis greatly increases the likelihood of euthanasia. Slings that wrap under the abdomen and hold the horse up (taking the weight off the legs) are commonly used for short periods of time, but can’t prevent laminitis. Slings can be uncomfortable, cause bedsores and lead to serious gastrointestinal problems. If a sling is used for too long, the healed leg can’t bear the horse’s weight properly and laminitis could still develop. The weight of a horse must be evenly dispersed on all four legs.
- Movement: Horses are animals that like to move and there’s a big risk they might reinjure themselves at some point during the healing process. A horse with a more relaxed disposition, that doesn’t mind having its movement restricted, usually has a better chance of properly healing.
- Infection: Open fractures are often complicated by infection, which can be further complicated depending on where the infection is located. Because horses don’t have musclesbelow their hock joints (similar to the human ankle), there aren’t many blood vessels to carry antibodies to the site of infection, thus making it difficult to treat. This fact makes giving a horseantibiotics difficult as well. Giving a horse enough antibiotics to be effective can kill the horse’s natural intestinal microorganisms and interact with important pain medication.
- Pain: Overwhelming pain is a double-edged sword when it comes to horses. Pain definitely needs to be treated, but you run the risk of overmedicating the horse. If the horse feels totally pain-free, there’s a good chance the animal might reinjure its leg. The severity of pain from common post-operative complications, such as laminitis, lies at the root of a decision to euthanize.
- Cost: The long and complicated process of bringing a horse back to good health can be expensive, and there’s no guarantee it’ll work. Besides being cost-prohibitive, rehabilitation can be hindered by an absence of available facilities that can treat severely injured horses and a general lack of knowledge.
The Winner’s Circle
2008 Kentucky Derby runner-up Eight Belles was euthanized on the spot after she inexplicably broke her two front ankles immediately after the race concluded. Barbaro triumphed to become the Kentucky Derby champion in 2006, but he suffered a fall at the Preakness Stakes shortly thereafter. Barbaro struggled for months to recover, but the post-op complications were too much, and the well-loved horse was euthanized on Jan. 29, 2007
One way people are attempting to help prevent racehorse injuries is by using synthetic materials when designing racetrack surfaces. For example, the top layer of Polytrack™ consists of silica sand, fiber and recycled material [source: Keeneland]. The track’s absorbent inner layers create a spongy track, able to cushion the horses’ steps and absorb some of the shock, decreasing the likelihood of a misstep or a twisted leg. Exercise is important in keeping horses healthy, but so is giving them plenty of time to recuperate after moderate injuries and stresses. Owners can also give a horse nutritional supplements which will help promote strong, healthy hooves, joints and bones.